WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement in Morocco: Evidence using performance indicators analysis
Mots-clés :Trade facilitation, trade facilitation agreement, trade costs, trade facilitation indicators, export performance, Morocco
This article conducts an in-depth analysis of Morocco's trade facilitation performance within the framework of the Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA). Utilizing a meticulously chosen set of indicators, this study addresses a significant gap in the existing literature, as there is a scarcity of research focusing on trade facilitation measures at the national level in Morocco, particularly concerning this groundbreaking agreement. The examination incorporates indicators assessing both the outcomes of trade facilitation measures and their contributions to policy. Regarding the former, the findings affirm Morocco's success in reducing export times and costs, as evidenced by the favorable results from the Trading Across Borders (TAB) indicators. However, this conclusion lacks support from microeconomic indicators, as demonstrated by the World Bank Enterprise Surveys (WBES), International Trade Centre (ITC), and Haut Commissariat au Plan (HCP) surveys. On a different note, better consistency is shown using OECD Trade Facilitation Indicators (TFIs) and United Nations Regional Commissions' Global Survey on Trade Facilitation and Paperless Trade Implementation (GSTF-PTI). Despite positive trends, a detailed review of the trade facilitation sub-indicators reveals progress, delays and identified areas for improvement. In examining the numerous indicators, the authors contend that the OECD TFIs stand out as exemplary indicators, meeting the criteria of robustness by being rooted in the TFA and offering policy-relevant insights. The authors advocate augmenting this study with in-depth econometric analysis to more properly determine the real impact of TFA on Morocco's trade costs and export performance. In particular, the adoption of OECD TFIs would make it easier to discern the effects of the various measures included in the TFA.
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